you find these people at the center of the party, what is the biggest advantage of doing an experiment. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Theories of Personality in Psychology Chapter Exam Instructions. Question 3 No two personalities are exactly alike. T/F: people show dramatic changes in personality over time. consistency across raters. process of constructing testing and refining theories, through systematic observations. You will need to know the major personality theories and approaches along with assessment techniques, research methods, and cultural context. T/F: traits are relatively stable and consistent, T/F: personality psychology emphasizes how people differ from each other, this is an organized set of principles that explain and predict observed events. looking at the consistency in our scale items. Completed all lessons in Psychology 310: Psychology of Personality course and achieved 100% Quiz Progress. Search results. people who score high on this trait using typically have high GPAs. should get the same results at a different test time. Some worry a lot, others almost never seem anxious. what the experimenter controls levels of, or makes different between people. practice exam 1 ap english literature bleak house answers pogil answers ap chemistry combustion analysis if dizygotic (dz) twins are similar to monozygotic (mz) twins on a trait, this suggests... a person scoring high on this trait is described as being creative, imaginative, and curious, this is when every person has an equal chance of being in each condition, this is an individual difference that emerges early in life. measuring the relationship between the variables. Personality Psychology Final Exam. is there change over time in personality? Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! Not attempted to take this exam within the last three days. are the way of representing the attitudes, behaviors, etc., that you are trying to study, are from abstract concepts to things we can actually manipulate, independent variable and dependent variable. Many personality researchers believe was can understand the differences between people by examining their personality traits, which reflect basic dimensions on which people differ. refers to an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior together with the psychological mechanisms (hidden or not) behind those patterns, psychoanalytic, psychoanalytic-social, trait, learning, cognitive social learning, humanistic. minnesota multi-phasic personality inventory (MMIP-2), originally developed in late 1930; has 550 true/false statements, pyschoanalytic perspective: major assumptions, personality is dynamic, personality is determined, personality is organizational, focus is on development, conscious mind, preconscious mind, unconscious mind, the dominant part of your mind (much of our behavior is due to forces within the unconscious), includes thoughts that you are not immediately aware of but can be brought to awareness fairly easily, includes what you are aware of at a given point in time and only a small part of your thoughts/memories are conscious, Freud believed that dreams are the single, best source of information about the unconscious; dreams are highly sufficient, carefully constructed, and always contain a concealed meaning; dreams are not random, what you remember from a dream; Freud believed that what you remembered is very deceptive and you should not take it at face value, dreams are part of the primary processing of the id; the id gains strength while you are alseep, ego lessens the threat of the id's images through dream work, the process of modifying and distorting images in dreams, condensation, displacement, censorship, symbolic substitution, when the ego uses a symbol which substitutes for something more threatening (because the real thing would be threatening or inappropriate), certain parts of a dream are censored, blocked out; this is why dreams are not alway sequential, involves shifting emphasis so that an important part of the dream is changed to something unimportant, when the ego combines and compresses separate thoughts into one thought, a person reports the manifest content of the dream and then makes associations about the dream and the analysis interprets the latent content of the dream and associations (dream interpretations are alway subjective), refers to a standard set of vague stimuli, called projectives because the client is supposed to project themselves upon the stimulus and give a response that reveals something about themselves, association, construction, completion, expression, projectives used to be used as primary sources of personality, now they are used more as secondary, allows clients great freedom and expression, the only assessment method that taps into the unconscious mind, still widely used today, reliability is only moderate, validity is generally poor, tend to be expensive to give, there are less expensive techniques that work just as well if not better, represents your biological drives; only part of your personality when you are born; all about immediate gratification; lacks reason, reality and morality; works on the pleasure principle, develops within the first 2 years of life; task is to understand reality and to satisfy need appropriately in a way that promotes self-preservation; works on the reality principle; uses secondary processing (planning and decision making), develops around age 4 or 5; the conscience (an internalization of your parent's and society's values and rules); main function is to prohibit and stop you from doing something; operates on the morality principle (doesn't take reality into account), conscience (fosters morally correct behavior by inhibiting the id's impulses) and ego ideal (the part of your superego that promotes perfectionistic goals), a balance between your id, ego, and superego, objective anxiety, neurotic anxiety, moral anxiety, the ego's reaction to danger in your environment; functional because it serves as a warning, comes from an id-ego conflict where the ego is trying to rain in the id and it is possible that the id is winning so the ego is starting to feel anxiety and sometimes the superego is stepping in and telling your ego that it is losing control over the id (no physical danger), results from an id-superego conflict where the superego is signaling the ego that the id is about to do something that is wrong and you can't do something that is morally incorrect, unconscious processes that keep disturbing and unacceptable thoughts from, "out of sight, out of mind"; the most important defense mechanism the ego uses; the ego pushes the threatening material into the unconscious mind where it is unavailable for recall as a way to protect it, "that can't be true"; the ego is distorting reality in order to make dealing with something threatening (impulses/information) easier (differs from repression in that the source of danger is outside where for repression it isn't necessarily outside but could be bad id impulses and thoughts), "acting like a baby"; a person returns to earlier, more comforting but less mature ways of behaving; the idea is that this behavior may have been successful at an earlier stage of development but you've out grown it and when a method of coping fails you regress to an earlier method of coping that used to work, "atoning for sins"; involves an individual engaging in some sort of behavior that is designed to compensate or make amends for some unacceptable feelings or behavior, "expressing the opposite reaction"; dealing with unacceptable impulses by expressing the opposite feeling which is often times over emphasized and taken to an extreme in an exaggerated way, "pointing the finger at others"; used when the individual can't accept responsibility for his or her own negative, aggressive, sexual, unacceptable thoughts and so they repress whatever the threatening impulse, feeling, idea is, the project that impulse on to someone else because they can't take responsibility for it, and lastly you distance yourself from that person, "finding a safe and easy target"; the ego shifts the expression of an impulse from an unacceptable or threatening target to a more acceptable or less threatening target, "saving face by using logic"; trying to make your behavior appear to be the result of logical thinking; trying to make your behavior seem rational even though much of our behavior is due to unconscious desires and impulses, "turning bad into good"; a lot of times the energy in basic drives is unacceptable, so using this defense mechanism that energy is redirected into something socially acceptable and positive, Freud's stage's of psychosexual development: background information, one body area is the focus of each stage and these body areas are sensitive to erotic stimulation; you need to transfer your libido from one stage to the next and you transfer this energy by resolving the developmental conflict at each stage which is always between free expression of a biological impulse and parental constraints, occurs when your needs have not been satisfied in that particular stage and you want to stay in that stage until you get it satisfied, occurs when your needs have been satisfied too well in a stage so you don't want to move on to the next stage because you might not have your needs met as well in the next stage, if part of your libido is left behind in a stage of frustration or over indulgence, begins at birth until 2 years old; focus is on satisfying the needs of the mouth; sucking (early oral) and biting and chewing (late oral), focused on sucking, these people tend to be more dependent and gullible, more likely to be a follower than a leader and to be passive; have a fondness for candy they can suck on and tend to be smokers and are fans of engaging in oral sex, focused on biting and chewing, these people tend to be more sarcastic, fiercely independent, very argumentative, like to chew things, begins at ages 2-3; focus is on the anus; expelling feces (early anal) and retaining feces (late anal), anal expulsive character type; messy, disorderly, wasteful, disorganized, temper tantrums, defiance, aggression, anal retentive character type; neat, organized, good at saving their finances, good at delaying gratification, stubborn, passive-aggressive, begins around age 4-5; focus is on the genitalia, little boys think their dad is going to cut off their penis if their dad finds out he has feelings for mom, girls assume that they have already been castrated and their mom was the one who took their penis away; this makes her feel inferior and very jealous of men that they have a penis and she doesn't; because of this girls increase their attachment to dad, superego is either underdeveloped and you have a very rigid moral code or it is overdeveloped and you do not have any moral or ethical guidelines to live by at all. Psychology Exam 1 study guide - Intro To Psychology Exam 1 study guide, Jorgensen PSYCH 2030, fall 2015. how do we understand personality dynamics? all information counts whether or not it's consistent or inconsistent with our expectations. (F/2) 2. Experimental method represents relationships with what 2 variables? specific persons. Personality p… which of the following methods provides the LEAST conducive evidence that a trait is heritable. (generated from a theory) is a testable prediction of results. Psychology Exam 2 5.0 1 Review Leave a rating STUDY PLAY Flashcards Learn Write Spell Test Match Created by blondie_805 Key concepts: Laissez Faire Leadership Magazines And Newspapers Need For Cognition Terms in this set (506) Even though you really dislike wearing a dress, D. compliance. (T/2) 1. Some people are very talkative while others are very quiet. Test Prep Plan - Take a practice test Introduction to Personality Psychology Chapter Exam Take this practice test to check your existing knowledge of the course material. leads to neuroticism and low extraversion, the ability to control ones impulses; conscience (internalize moral standards). T/F: both correlational and experimental studies attempt to measure the associations between variables. T/F: people score lower on agreeableness and conscientiousness as they grow older. c. delete all items from the test that do not correlate with the other items. d. b and c only e. a, b, and c are correct Answer: d From: textbook, p. 14-15 Which of the statements below are FALSE? Personality Psychology Quizlet Exam 3 [Most popular] 1407 kb/s. Overview of Personality in Psychology Chapter Exam Take this practice test to check your existing knowledge of the course material. a. ... 40. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. all-encompassing. Personality Psychology Final Exam Flashcard Maker: Minda Wood. personalities influence which situations we find ourselves in. This free personality test uniquely combines two powerful systems for evaluating personality type It is based on research originally conducted by Carl Jung in early 1900s that has been enhanced and built upon by other personality type researchers, practitioners and experts over the past 100 years. Suggestions. Psychologists typically use the term personality to refer to specific characteristics of . This is an example of? this is an event (often behavior) that one is going to measure. personality psychology is interested in studying a person's ___, ___, and ___. this is a testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur. (F/2) 4. the hero is always defeating evil, often times suffers punishment for someone else, rescues people, etc... extraversion (orients people toward external, objective world) and introversion (orients people toward the inner, subjective world), the initial concrete experiencing of a phenomenon; not thinking or feeling anything about it, just establishing what is there and there is no reaction to it, interpret and understand the meaning of what is being perceived, evaluating the desirability or pleasantness of what is being perceived, when you form a hunch or form a conclusion without using any of the other functions; not thinking about it or evaluating your feelings, more of a gut feeling/reaction, the combination of two attitudes and four functions, both attitudes are present in everyone, however, one tends to be more dominant and conscious and the other is subordinate and unconscious; everyone has the capacity to use all four functions, but one becomes more highly differentiated and becomes superior to the others, psychoanalytic-social perspective: major assumptions, emphasis on ego, description of self, importance of interpersonal relationships, importance of social and cultural factors, second of six children; he always felt like he was in the shadow of his successful older brother; suffered a sickly childhood; was a mediocre student in school and his teachers told his dad that he wasn't cut out for college but he used that motivation to eventually rise to the top of his class; had a nine year association with Freud and met weekly to discuss psychoanalysis; later he became a vocal critic of Freud, adler assumed that humans are motivated by this; people have an innate potential for relating to others, a kinship to humanity; believes that this is a major role in personality development, refers to choosing a vocation which in turn allows that person to have feelings of self worth to the society, refers to friendship, cooperation, having empathy or others; the idea of getting along well with others, refers to the relationship between the sexes and finding a significant other, adler believed that to be a human means to feel inferior and when you feel this way it generates a struggle for perfection and to stop feeling inferior; all personality development comes from feelings of helplessness and inferiority; progress in life is always from a minus to a plus state, refers to the unique ways that people pursue their goals; everyone has the same goal of superiority, adler believed that is is formed by the time you are 4-5 and impacts how your achieve your goals for the rest of your life, negative childhood experiences, parental neglect, parental overindulgence, people who seek control to dominate others; people are selfish, vain, and overly competitive, people are dependent, passive, and possibly depressed, people who try to isolate themselves from others, avoid any kind of conflict or problems because if you engage in relationships with others you are going to have conflict, spoiled, selfish and self-centered, sense of entitlement, unrealistic sense of their worth, overly attached to mom, lacking social skills because they don't have built-in playmates, independent, bossy and dominating, protective, responsible; "dethroned" when the next sibling comes and they usually don't like to share the attention, competitive with other siblings, envious of first-born, more likely to be rebellious, least likely to be spoiled, outgoing and popular with peers, able to "get away" with the most things, more dependent and spoiled, often a problem child, parents have high expectations (which affect the children); parents are more affectionate but also more punitive with them; score higher on intelligence tests; tend to be more conforming to both parent's and other adult's requests and expectations, parent's generally have more realistic expectations; tend to be more relaxed with their discipline; children are less concerned about pleasing the adults around them and so they tend to be more popular and have more peer support and succeed more in peer relationships, research suggests that if children are spaced 5 years or more apart they function like only children; if you are the only girl in a family of all boys, she'll get extra attention regardless of birth order, abandoned by his father before he was born, he was raised by his mother and his jewish stepfather; wasn't a good student in school and decided not to go to college; got involved in psychology because he painted portraits of children and met up with Anna Freud and she asked him if he'd be interested in child psychoanalysis; became the first child analysis in Boston in 1933; ended up teaching at Yale, Cal Berkley, and Harvard without a college degree, refers to a union of your physical needs as well as cultural environmental forces that have an affect on the individual, at each stage there are two opposing poles, if you successfully resolve the crisis at each stage it helps you move along in terms of gain a sense of identity and sense of self; you want a favorable ratio where you have more of the good pole and less of the bad pole, begins at birth to 18 months; trust results from infant's sense that it can count on satisfaction of its needs; mistrust results when the infant feels abandoned and helpless and not getting its needs met, hope, the enduring belief that basic satisfactions are attainable and continues with you for the rest of your life, second stage: autonomy vs. shame and doubt, occurs around 18 months to 2-3 years; the development of motor skills leads to independence and feelings of power; shame and doubt is the idea that even though you can do a lot of things yourself, you still have to depend on others for a lot of things (also the loss of self-control), will power, the ability to make choices and demonstrate independence while still taking into consideration other people's needs, occurs at age 3-4; appearance of conscience puts a restrain on your behaviors and you start to consider consequences; initiative means acting on your desires and potentials; guilt refers to when you are unable to restrain by initiatives, purpose, which is the "courage to pursue valued goals guided by conscience but not paralyzed by guilt", age 5 through puberty; focus is on performance in school; industry refers to a child applying themselves to learning; inferiority refers to the child perceiving their skills/status to be inferior to their peers; parents and teachers determine how well children perceive their abilities, competence, the skill and intelligence in pursuing and completing tasks, occurs during puberty; identity refers to the confidence that others see us as we see ourselves; role confusion refers to the way you see yourself is very different as other's see you, fidelity, (according to erikson) this is the cornerstone to personality and identity, occurs at the end of adolescence to age 35; establishing independence from your parents, begin functioning as a mature, responsible adult which means getting a job, establishing intimate relationships, becoming financially independent; intimacy is the capability to commit to a relationship without losing your identity; isolation occurs if a young adult cannot commit to such relationships, love, you need to love and be happy with yourself first before you can commit and love someone else, seventh stage: generativity vs. stagnation, occurs from age 35 to 55/65; generativity refers to the concern with establishing and guiding the next generation, if you fail to do this you have stagnation, be a good parent, be in a profession that helps or guides people, volunteer in schools or participate in intern programs, become a coach for younger people, care, a broadening concern for the future generation, occurs after age 55/65 until death; integrity refers to having something of interest and value to share with the next generation, being able to give up leadership in the present; despair refers to the feeling that time is too short to achieve integrity and the feeling that you've done nothing in your life of any importance, must do more than just reflect on the past; have to remain active participants in life and seek out challenges and stimulation; do volunteer work and develop new interests, wisdom, an active concern with life in the face of death, important characteristics of marcia's four identity status, when the adolescent is consciously choosing among various alternatives, psychological investment in a course of action or ideology, exploration yes, commitment yes; explored all options and then made a commitment, exploration no, commitment yet; exploration is absent but commitment is present, exploration is present but commitment is absent, father was a sea captain and education was for men, however her mom supported her desires for education; goal was to study medicine; moved to US in 1932 to escape her unhappy marriage, here she broke from Freud's ideas and started questioning his ideas, argued that only neurotic women have penis envy and doesn't mean that all women are jealous or want a penis; argued that it was a reflection of the era, they weren't jealous of the penis, they were jealous of the symbol of the penis, men are envious of women because women are able to give birth and men are not; men have such a small role in act of creating life compared to women; men overcompensate for this by achieving success at work, coping techniques that begin in childhood and develop in response to basic anxiety; we all manifest neurotic needs to some degree, needs become neurotic when a person clings to them and becomes rigid to using needs to cope in an inflexible, nontransient way, striving to be liked and pleasing to other people, want to live up to expectations of others; dread is assertiveness and anger, seeking to be taken over by another through love, overvalues love and really wants to be consumed by someone else in a love relationships; dread is being alone, trying to be undemanding and inconspicuous, to be content with little, values modesty; dread is being a bother or a burden, seeking domination and control over others; dread is weakness and that you are not in control, taking advantage of other people, using other people, trying to figure out how you can always gain from interactions; dread is being seen as either stupid or gullible, seeking public acceptance; dread is humiliation, striving to be the best, being ambitious, enjoying defeating others; dread is failure, a self inflating sense of admiration, want admiration for an idealized self-interest and that you are better than you really are; dread is being seen as human or as someone with flaws who is imperfect, trying to not need other people and maintain distance, longer, don't want to have to need anyone; dread is closeness, being drive towards superiority, fearful of making mistakes, constantly searching for their own mistakes so they can fix them or cover them up before other people realize it; dread is flaws and criticism, (affection and approval, having a partner, narrowly restricting one's life) compliant type of people, (power, exploiting others, social recognition or prestige, personal achievement) aggressive type of people, (personal admiration, self sufficiency/independence, perfection) detached type of people, fear of losing a relationship that is seen as the best available means of satisfying an insatiable concern for affection and incessant demands for unconditional love, these people show a fear of losing someone's love that is out of proportion, emphasis on interpersonal relationships; most important part of life is our relationships, emotionally important people are called "objects"; we can only relate to other people via the images that we hold of them in our minds, four principle themes of object relations theory, every relationship has in it elements of satisfaction and frustration or pleasure and pain, every relationship mixes love and hate (it is inevitable), an important distinction needs to be made between parts of the love object and the whole person (may be impossible to actually love the whole person because you are always focusing on the parts that benefit you personally), the psyche of the baby and the adult is aware of and disturbed by these contradictory feelings. 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