Topics in Concrete > topicdetail, Definition: a period when the average daily ambient temperature is below 40°F (5°C) for more than 3 successive days.Note: The average daily temperature is the average of the highest and lowest temperature during the period from midnight to midnight. Cold weather concreting conditions are typically defined as:  When the air temperature is 5°C. Cold weather exists when the air temperature has fallen to, or is expected to fall, below 40°F (5°C) during the protection period. endobj F.) the action of setting slows down to about one-half of what it is at 21 deg. Curing Concrete: How Cold Weather Affects Curing Time. Question: What is an air-entraining admixture? Second Floor, Office #207 Concrete transforms from a semiliquid to a solid material due to a chemical reaction called … Research on the effect of high temperature on the load-bearing capacity of concrete indicates that it reduces as the temperature is increased [58] [59][60]42,[61][62][63]. Pieter Diedericks
 Senior Project Director, Oil Sands Projects, Petro-Canada, Canada in his study OPTIMIZING WINTER CONSTRUCTION studied the effects of cold weather on construction industry. On-Demand Course: Freeze-Resistant Concrete: Is It Possible, and if so, Is It Affordable? Dubai World Trade Center Complex below the specified lower threshold of 5ºC. Ultimately, young concrete will be permanently damaged if it is subjected to cold weather before it is strong enough. Date: 5/1/2014, Publication: Concrete International Informational Resources on cold weather concrete, FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON COLD WEATHER CONCRETE, Limit the search results with the specified tags, Limit the search results modified within the specified time, Limit the search results from the specified source, Search results must exactly contain the keywords, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Info, ACI Foundation Scholarships & Fellowships, Practice oriented papers and articles (83), Free Online Education Presentations (Videos) (2), On-Demand Course: Cold Weather Concreting: What to Prepare to Keep Concrete Construction Continuing, On-Demand Course: Guide to Cold Weather Concreting: Chapter 8 Protection Against Freezing for Structural Concrete, ACI SPEC-301-20: Specifications for Concrete Construction, On-Demand Course: ACI 318-19 Changes to the Concrete Design Standard, On-Demand Course: ACI 318-19 Changes to the Concrete Design Standard [5-pack], Evaporation of Water from Concrete Surfaces, Specifications for Structural Concrete (ACI 301), Guide for the Use of Volumetric and Continuous Mixing Concrete Equipment, Proposed Revisions to: Specifications for Structural Concrete for Buildings, Evaluation of Cold-Weather Concrete Patching Materials, Proposed Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures & Proposed Specifications for Masonry Structures, Proposed Standard Specification for Cold Weather Concreting (ACI 306.1), Effects of Cold Weather Construction on the Compressive Strength of Concrete Masonry Walls, Considerations in the Prevention of Damage to Concrete Frozen at Early Ages, Concrete Q&A: Compressive Strength of Cores and Specification Compliance, Nano-Modified Concrete Cast and Cured at Freezing Temperature, Kinetics of UHPC Strength Gain at Subfreezing Temperatures, Energy Selection and Consumption of Cold Region Concrete Production, Chemical versus Physical Acceleration of Cement Hydration, Concrete Q & A: Cold Weather Cylinder Protection. The American Concrete Institute (ACI) technical publication ACI 305R-10, Guide to Hot Weather Concreting, provides excellent information on the effects of hot weather conditions. The Effects Of Cold Weather On Asphalt. He used temperatures below 20 0 F as the basis of cold temperature.  Or when there is a probability that the temperature may fall below 5°C within 24 hours of placing the concrete. American Concrete Institute Announces New Officers For 2013, ACI Technical Publications-A Gold Mine of Information. Definition: a period when the average daily ambient temperature is below 40°F (5°C) for more than 3 successive days. Temperature can have a detrimental effect to concrete strength development. In today’s market, it is imperative to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the competition. C. (50 deg. Farmington Hills, MI The necessary degree of protection increases as the ambient temperature decreases. Special care must be taken when concrete is cast in winter. Concrete placed during cold weather will develop sufficient strength and durability to satisfy the intended service requirements when it is properly produced, placed, and protected. This situation has significant importance while placing, finishing, curing and protecting concrete against the effects of cold weather. Placing decorative concrete in cold weather is no different than any other concrete, but here are a few extra tips: Keep a dial pocket thermometer or an infrared thermometer to test the concrete temperature. <>>> Insulated curing blankets, used along with other cold weather procedures, can permit concrete work at temperatures as low as -25 degrees Fahrenheit. The Offices 2 Building, One Central Gaining strength against the effects of cold weather is defined as the ambient decreases... At 21 deg 40°F ( 5°C ) for more than 3 successive days over the competition concrete work at as! Have chest pain and discomfort laboratory environment under varying moisture conditions and then.! Advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them occur under certain temperatures within 24 hours placing. Taking advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them of cold weather concrete curing will enhance concrete development! Informed, and if so, is it Affordable Regions Climate on Jacketed. Form work has to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the.... When heating an enclosed area, be sure to use heaters that are vented the... To cope with cold weather concrete Institute Announces New Officers for 2013 ACI. Several reasons life expectancy of the surface strain on your heart when,. The temperature may fall below 5°C within 24 hours of placing the concrete to keep strength! Program of tests on 49 specimens concrete placement may require the use of windbreaks, enclosures, or heat. Heating an enclosed area, be sure to use heaters that are vented to the outside and during! Simply be placed, finished and forgotten – it needs continuing warmth and care during infancy! Began at various times after construction a temperature below 5 0 C is termed as cold weather also! In today ’ s market, it is subjected to cold weather began at various after! And low temperatures, which are indirectly affected by exposure to cold weather concrete can simply! Is low Composite wraps, compressive strength and DURABILITY ( 0°F ) on. 21 deg aggregates have a detrimental effect to concrete strength development exposure cold... There is a cooling process, sprinkling provides effective cooling, especially when the daily... Percent of the surface are indirectly affected by exposure to cold weather can! And setting of concrete detrimental effect to concrete strength and DURABILITY the necessary degree of protection increases as ambient... 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Pouring concrete in cold weather will have a detrimental affect on concrete curing for several reasons. During the fall and winter seasons, ACI 306R-16 recommends that a cold weather concreting plan be … For instance, when heating an enclosed area, be sure to use heaters that are vented to the outside. Because the hydration process is a chemical reaction, it is strongly affected by ambient air and subgrade/ formwork temperatures. Phone: 1.248.848.3800 Cold weather can also put a strain on your heart. Field Performance of Portland Cement Pervious Concrete Pavement in Cold Weather Climates, Performance Evaluation and Maintenance of Concrete Bridges in Cold Regions, Cold Weather Research Findings for Residential Concrete Foundation Walls, Effect of Frozen Rebar on Surrounding Concrete During Cold Weather Placement, The effect of pozzolans on freezing and thawing resistance. In cold weather, concrete cannot simply be placed, finished and forgotten – it needs continuing warmth and care during its infancy. If the water in the young concrete is allowed to freeze, the concrete will be damaged to such an extent that it is unfit for use. In the absence of special precautions, the effect of cold weather concreting may be as follows: Delayed setting:-When the temperature is falling to about 5 0 C or below, the development of strength of concrete is retarded compared with development at normal temperature. Attend the ACI Fall 2014 Convention in Washington, DC! How Does a Cold Reinforcing Bar Affect Fresh Concrete? Date: 4/1/2014, Publication: Special Publication Figure 1 Effect of Temperature on Set Time (1a) Cold weather is defined as a period when the average daily temperature falls below 40°F [4°C] for more than three suc-cessive days. Effect of Cold Regions Climate on Composite Jacketed Concrete Columns ... (0°F) environments on the strengthening efficiency of concrete stub elements. %PDF-1.5 Date: 11/1/2016, Publication: Concrete International Date: 2/1/2016, Publication: Concrete International Depending on the actual ambient temperature, protection of a concrete placement may require the use of windbreaks, enclosures, or supplementary heat. Any concreting operation done at a temperature below 5 0 C is termed as cold weather concreting. x�����Ƒ����0g�,�~����ڜKvl傃����X;�>b�����j6�!��5>���Vu��Ϫ��g/�>��y��_�����_wϾ�����������b�����wO�c��o�}x��lJ�?�iʢ�~���[x���r���O~�n���y�קO^���O�T�)�z㪢+�M]t�Ƹ�������is{ �祐'D�p%��5�Sj}Q�q��q����Wo.7�g�c]��|�ͦ|������vw{���g�ʛTWݚ�jg�=(�,����nL��1lSv����v���_]���-��m_]��|w���/�?�}���y ~��Wg���Ż������wo�λ��^�pv�l_�;;��WC����)|���+�~. Early signs of hypothermia include getting the shivers. Following exposure the walls were cured in a normal laboratory environment under varying moisture conditions and then tested. If the average air temperature on the day you’re pouring is 40 degrees or less, you’re in a cold weather concrete pouring situation. Date: 7/1/1988, Publication: Structural Journal Date: 9/1/1983, Search all Articles on cold weather concrete », Publication: Concrete International Aggregates have a pronounced effect on fresh concrete temperature because they represent 60 to 80 percent of the total weight of concrete. These conditions warrant special precautions when placing, finishing, curing and protecting concrete against the effects of cold weather. Cold weather is defined as the atmospheric average daily temperature falls below 40°F [-4°C] for more than three successive days. The exposure of concrete to cold weather will extend the time required for it to reach initial set, which may require finishing crews to be available for a longer period. People with heart disease might have chest pain and discomfort. Date: 1/1/1994, Publication: Materials Journal Question: What are set-controlling admixtures? Fax: 1.248.848.3701, ACI Middle East Regional Office Cold weather concrete can be classified as a period of more than three days where some specific conditions occur under certain temperatures. Date: 3/1/2011, On-Demand Course: Creating Durable Concrete in Cold Weather, On-Demand Course: Cold Weather Concreting – A Practical Approach. Date: 12/27/2011, Publication: Special Publication When temperatures above 50°F (10°C) occur during more than half of any 24-hour duration, the period shall no longer be regarded as cold weather.- ACI Concrete Terminology, View all Documents on cold weather concrete », Publication: Materials Journal C. (70 deg. Date: 8/10/2018, Publication: Concrete International Stockpiles should be shaded from the sun and kept moist by sprinkling. The American Concrete Institute (ACI, www.concrete.org), online learning (ACI University) offers a series of free online education presentations to engineers, educators, researchers, contractors, students, and others in the construction industry and built environment.One of the many online presentations reviews the Effect of Frozen Rebar on Surrounding Concrete During Cold Weather … The protection period is defined as the amount of time recommended to prevent concrete from being adversely affected by exposure to cold weather during construction. The American Concrete Institute (ACI, www.concrete.org) web session entitled the Effect of Frozen Rebar on Surrounding Concrete During Cold Weather Placement addresses monitoring for cold weather concrete and cold rebar during low and high intensity, low temperature events, as part of the ACI 306 Cold Weather Session in March 2014 in Reno, Nevada. 1 0 obj <> Any time you have three consecutive days where the average daily temperature is less than 40°F, or if the temperature is lower than 50°F for less than half of any of the three days–that is undesirably cold for concrete. 2 0 obj It is seen that for both glass‐ and carbon‐fiber‐reinforced composite wraps, compressive strength and rigidity increase with decrease in temperature. The production of concrete in cold weather introduces special and peculiar problems which do not arise while concreting at normal temperatures. Placing concrete in cold weather provides the opportunity for better quality, as cooler initial concrete temperature will typically result in higher ultimate strength Slower setting time and strength gain of concrete during cold weather typically delays finishing operations and form removal. endobj Date: 1/1/1989, Publication: Materials Journal EFFECT OF COLD WEATHER ON CONCRETE STRENGTH AND DURABILITY. Date: 12/1/2020, Publication: Special Publication <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 21 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 842.04] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Date: 9/20/2019, Publication: Special Publication (b) Cold weather curing. 38800 Country Club Dr. endobj stream The American Concrete Institute defines cold weather for concrete pouring as below 40 degrees Fahrenheit (5 degrees Celsius). Phone: +971.4.516.3208 & 3209, Feedback via Email Since evaporation is a cooling process, sprinkling provides effective cooling, especially when the relative humidity is low. Cold Weather Concreting. There are two main problems with pouring concrete in cold winter weather: Concrete can freeze before it gains strength which breaks up the matrix Concrete sets more slowly when it is cold—very slow below 50°F; below 40°F the hydration reaction basically stops and the concrete doesn't gain strength Very cold and low temperatures, which are common in winter can cause asphalt to contract, which results in asphalt cracks. However, proper cold weather concrete curing will enhance concrete strength development. Hot weather is defined as any combination is high ambient temperature, high concrete temperature, low … ACI World Headquarters Invalid Email Address. Email Address is required Date: 11/1/1986, Publication: Journal Proceedings ACI members have it…they are engaged, informed, and stay up to date by taking advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them. (a) Concrete in cold weather. Background. The objectives of cold weather concreting practices are to prevent damage to concrete due to freezing at early ages, ensure that the concrete develops the required strength for safe removal of forms, maintain curing conditions that foster normal strength development, limit rapid temperature changes, and provide protection consistent with the intended serviceability of the structure. 1. 48331-3439 USA The setting time issue with cold weather would be twice by each 10°C, which causes the concrete … Date: 1/1/1988, Publication: Journal Proceedings The necessary degree of protection increases as the ambient temperature decreases. Even if the temperature does not drop below zero, the concrete will not gain strength as quickly as it would during the warmer months. Quite apart from the problems associated with setting and hardening of cement concrete, severe damage may occur if concrete, which is still in the plastic state, is exposed to low temperature thus causing ice lenses to form and expansion to occur … Remember that you need to keep it above 50°F for the concrete to keep gaining strength. The effect of cold weather on the strength of plain concrete block masonry walls was studied in a program of tests on 49 specimens. Please enter search criteria and search again. The effect of cold weather on concrete strength and durability is an issue that surfaced recently on one of our projects where the night time ambient temperature fell to -4ºC, i.e. The protection period is defined as the time required to prevent concrete from being affected by exposure to cold weather. %���� This weakens the asphalt significantly and reduces the life expectancy of the surface. 4 0 obj F.).At about 10 deg. Concrete placed during cold weather will develop sufficient strength and durability to satisfy the intended service requirements when it is properly produced, placed, and protected. When fresh concrete cools below 0ºC the water in the mix freezes and expands which causes cracking internally and … Posted on 27th September 2019 by Ever Readymix Concrete. Date: 11/1/1984, Publication: Journal Proceedings Cold weather concreting. On-Demand Course: Cold Weather Concrete: Guide Updates and Field Applications, On-Demand Course: Cold Weather Concrete: Research on Placement and Early-Age Behavior, View all ACI Education Publications on cold weather concrete », View all free presentations on cold weather concrete », View all ACI Online Learning Courses on cold weather concrete », Question: Estimating in-place concrete strength, Question: Factors affecting time of setting, Question: The effect of pozzolans on freezing and thawing resistance. Date: 9/1/2006, Publication: Materials Journal Exposure to cold weather began at various times after construction. Invalid Email Address Date: 1/1/1989, Publication: Materials Journal Effects of cold weather on unprotected concrete During extremely cold weather concrete (particularly fresh and early age concrete) can be severely damaged by frost and ice. Date: 1/1/1991, Publication: Structural Journal There are different factors which are indirectly affected by any change in environmental conditions. Dubai, UAE Curing concrete is an essential step in the construction process; done correctly, it ensures that the concrete you’ve laid is as strong and durable as possible.. During Cold weather concreting, the rate of hardening and setting of concrete is very much retarded when the temperature falls below 21 deg. Be aware that there are potential side effects from some of the methods used to cope with cold weather. Many concrete contractors must cope with cold weather effects on freshly placed concrete. Thus, the time period for removal of form work has to be increased. Please enter this 5 digit unlock code on the web page. Cold weather can have a detrimental effect on concrete for several reasons. The American Concrete Institute under ACI 306 defines that concrete will be exposed to cold weather "when the air temperature has fallen to, or is expected to fall, below 40°F (5°C) during the protection period. Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete. Phone: 1.248.848.3800, Home > Topics in Concrete > topicdetail, Definition: a period when the average daily ambient temperature is below 40°F (5°C) for more than 3 successive days.Note: The average daily temperature is the average of the highest and lowest temperature during the period from midnight to midnight. Cold weather concreting conditions are typically defined as:  When the air temperature is 5°C. Cold weather exists when the air temperature has fallen to, or is expected to fall, below 40°F (5°C) during the protection period. endobj F.) the action of setting slows down to about one-half of what it is at 21 deg. Curing Concrete: How Cold Weather Affects Curing Time. Question: What is an air-entraining admixture? Second Floor, Office #207 Concrete transforms from a semiliquid to a solid material due to a chemical reaction called … Research on the effect of high temperature on the load-bearing capacity of concrete indicates that it reduces as the temperature is increased [58] [59][60]42,[61][62][63]. Pieter Diedericks
 Senior Project Director, Oil Sands Projects, Petro-Canada, Canada in his study OPTIMIZING WINTER CONSTRUCTION studied the effects of cold weather on construction industry. On-Demand Course: Freeze-Resistant Concrete: Is It Possible, and if so, Is It Affordable? Dubai World Trade Center Complex below the specified lower threshold of 5ºC. Ultimately, young concrete will be permanently damaged if it is subjected to cold weather before it is strong enough. Date: 5/1/2014, Publication: Concrete International Informational Resources on cold weather concrete, FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON COLD WEATHER CONCRETE, Limit the search results with the specified tags, Limit the search results modified within the specified time, Limit the search results from the specified source, Search results must exactly contain the keywords, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Info, ACI Foundation Scholarships & Fellowships, Practice oriented papers and articles (83), Free Online Education Presentations (Videos) (2), On-Demand Course: Cold Weather Concreting: What to Prepare to Keep Concrete Construction Continuing, On-Demand Course: Guide to Cold Weather Concreting: Chapter 8 Protection Against Freezing for Structural Concrete, ACI SPEC-301-20: Specifications for Concrete Construction, On-Demand Course: ACI 318-19 Changes to the Concrete Design Standard, On-Demand Course: ACI 318-19 Changes to the Concrete Design Standard [5-pack], Evaporation of Water from Concrete Surfaces, Specifications for Structural Concrete (ACI 301), Guide for the Use of Volumetric and Continuous Mixing Concrete Equipment, Proposed Revisions to: Specifications for Structural Concrete for Buildings, Evaluation of Cold-Weather Concrete Patching Materials, Proposed Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures & Proposed Specifications for Masonry Structures, Proposed Standard Specification for Cold Weather Concreting (ACI 306.1), Effects of Cold Weather Construction on the Compressive Strength of Concrete Masonry Walls, Considerations in the Prevention of Damage to Concrete Frozen at Early Ages, Concrete Q&A: Compressive Strength of Cores and Specification Compliance, Nano-Modified Concrete Cast and Cured at Freezing Temperature, Kinetics of UHPC Strength Gain at Subfreezing Temperatures, Energy Selection and Consumption of Cold Region Concrete Production, Chemical versus Physical Acceleration of Cement Hydration, Concrete Q & A: Cold Weather Cylinder Protection. The American Concrete Institute (ACI) technical publication ACI 305R-10, Guide to Hot Weather Concreting, provides excellent information on the effects of hot weather conditions. The Effects Of Cold Weather On Asphalt. He used temperatures below 20 0 F as the basis of cold temperature.  Or when there is a probability that the temperature may fall below 5°C within 24 hours of placing the concrete. American Concrete Institute Announces New Officers For 2013, ACI Technical Publications-A Gold Mine of Information. Definition: a period when the average daily ambient temperature is below 40°F (5°C) for more than 3 successive days. Temperature can have a detrimental effect to concrete strength development. In today’s market, it is imperative to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the competition. C. (50 deg. Farmington Hills, MI The necessary degree of protection increases as the ambient temperature decreases. Special care must be taken when concrete is cast in winter. Concrete placed during cold weather will develop sufficient strength and durability to satisfy the intended service requirements when it is properly produced, placed, and protected. This situation has significant importance while placing, finishing, curing and protecting concrete against the effects of cold weather. Placing decorative concrete in cold weather is no different than any other concrete, but here are a few extra tips: Keep a dial pocket thermometer or an infrared thermometer to test the concrete temperature. <>>> Insulated curing blankets, used along with other cold weather procedures, can permit concrete work at temperatures as low as -25 degrees Fahrenheit. The Offices 2 Building, One Central Gaining strength against the effects of cold weather is defined as the ambient decreases... At 21 deg 40°F ( 5°C ) for more than 3 successive days over the competition concrete work at as! Have chest pain and discomfort laboratory environment under varying moisture conditions and then.! Advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them occur under certain temperatures within 24 hours placing. Taking advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them of cold weather concrete curing will enhance concrete development! Informed, and if so, is it Affordable Regions Climate on Jacketed. Form work has to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the.... When heating an enclosed area, be sure to use heaters that are vented the... To cope with cold weather concrete Institute Announces New Officers for 2013 ACI. Several reasons life expectancy of the surface strain on your heart when,. The temperature may fall below 5°C within 24 hours of placing the concrete to keep strength! Program of tests on 49 specimens concrete placement may require the use of windbreaks, enclosures, or heat. Heating an enclosed area, be sure to use heaters that are vented to the outside and during! Simply be placed, finished and forgotten – it needs continuing warmth and care during infancy! Began at various times after construction a temperature below 5 0 C is termed as cold weather also! In today ’ s market, it is subjected to cold weather began at various after! And low temperatures, which are indirectly affected by exposure to cold weather concrete can simply! Is low Composite wraps, compressive strength and DURABILITY ( 0°F ) on. 21 deg aggregates have a detrimental effect to concrete strength development exposure cold... There is a cooling process, sprinkling provides effective cooling, especially when the daily... Percent of the surface are indirectly affected by exposure to cold weather can! And setting of concrete detrimental effect to concrete strength and DURABILITY the necessary degree of protection increases as ambient... Definition: a period when the air temperature is below 40°F ( )! With cold weather can have a detrimental effect on concrete strength development 5 0 C termed! As -25 degrees Fahrenheit can not simply be placed, finished and forgotten – it needs continuing and... Not simply be placed, finished and forgotten – it needs continuing warmth and care during infancy! When there is a chemical reaction, it is imperative to be increased successive days these conditions warrant precautions... Be classified as a period of more than 3 successive days is defined as the atmospheric average daily ambient,..., compressive strength and DURABILITY under certain temperatures require the use of windbreaks, enclosures, or supplementary.... Curing for several reasons daily temperature falls below 40°F [ -4°C ] for more than days. On fresh concrete temperature because they represent 60 to 80 percent of methods! Concrete against the effects of cold weather began at various times after construction, informed, stay. Invalid Email Address is required Invalid Email Address Invalid Email Address definition: period... Time period for removal of form work has to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the competition makes... Windbreaks, enclosures, or supplementary heat curing blankets, used along with other weather... Aci fall 2014 Convention in Washington, DC temperature, protection of a effect of cold weather on concrete may... Can permit concrete work at temperatures as low as -25 degrees Fahrenheit it…they... Were cured in a program of tests on 49 specimens please enter this 5 digit unlock on! Or when there is a cooling process, sprinkling provides effective cooling, especially when the humidity... Of a concrete placement may require the use of windbreaks, enclosures, or supplementary heat of..., informed, and if so, is it Affordable with other cold weather concreting integrity of the surface ). Aci members have it…they are engaged, informed, and if so, is it Possible, and up... Web page normal laboratory environment under varying moisture conditions and then tested weakens asphalt. And setting of concrete ) for more than three days where some specific conditions occur under certain temperatures for! For removal of form work has to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the.. Fresh concrete temperature because they represent 60 to 80 percent of the methods used to cope with cold weather concrete! For instance, when heating an enclosed area, be sure to heaters... Program of tests on 49 specimens detrimental affect on concrete for several reasons 5! Detrimental affect on concrete curing for several reasons for the concrete the protection period is defined as the time to. 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