This fun and easy-to-use crossword puzzle app features new, themed puzzles each day. These black sheep were considered undesirable by shepherds, as black wool is not as commercially viable as white wool. However, sheep also prefer to eat invasives such as cheatgrass, leafy spurge, kudzu and spotted knapweed over native species such as sagebrush, making grazing sheep effective for conservation grazing. Sheep, domesticated ruminant (cud-chewing) mammal, raised for its meat, milk, and wool. Byproducts from the slaughter of sheep are also of value: sheep tallow can be used in candle and soap making, sheep bone and cartilage has been used to furnish carved items such as dice and buttons as well as rendered glue and gelatin. Touch and sight are also important in relation to specific plant characteristics, such as succulence and growth form. Use of the word sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap; it is both the singular and plural name for the animal.  Sheep are occasionally sacrificed to commemorate important secular events in Islamic cultures.  In comparison, countries such as the U.S. consume only a pound or less (under 0.5 kg), with Americans eating 50 pounds (22 kg) of pork and 65 pounds (29 kg) of beef.  In Ancient Egyptian religion, the ram was the symbol of several gods: Khnum, Heryshaf and Amun (in his incarnation as a god of fertility). Pre-modern shepherds used their own presence, livestock guardian dogs, and protective structures such as barns and fencing. Providing lambs for youth programs such as 4-H and competition at agricultural shows is often a dependable avenue for the sale of sheep. 2000. 172–181.  Of all sheep byproducts, perhaps the most valuable is lanolin: the waterproof, fatty substance found naturally in sheep's wool and used as a base for innumerable cosmetics and other products. 2007. Herds of feral sheep are also known, such as the Soay sheep of certain Scottish islands, believed to have lived wild since the Bronze Age. , Sheep are one of the few animals where the molecular basis of the diversity of male sexual preferences has been examined. .  Sheep can also consume plants, such as noxious weeds, that most other animals will not touch, and produce more young at a faster rate. Animal Science. Press, Ithaca, New York. A. Baldwin, J. N. Toner and C. Weller. , Sheep are frequently thought of as unintelligent animals. Ideal pasture for sheep is not lawnlike grass, but an array of grasses, legumes and forbs.  Many of these products are now often made with cow's milk, especially when produced outside their country of origin. Sheep tails also hang down, even when short or docked, while the short tails of goats are held upwards. , Most lambs begin life being born outdoors. Image credit: en.wikipedia.org. Keds are blood-sucking parasites that cause general malnutrition and decreased productivity, but are not fatal. (2009). Kurmann, Joseph A.; Jeremija L. Rašić; Manfred Kroger (1992). , Wool supplied by Australian farmers to dealers (tonnes/quarter) has been in decline since 1990, Domestic sheep provide a wide array of raw materials. Understanding The History", "Much Ado About Mutton, but Not in These Parts", https://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/29/dining/29mutt.html, https://books.google.com/?id=960bAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA27&lpg=PA27&dq=bucky+lamb+sheep#v=onepage&q=bucky%20lamb%20sheep&f=false, https://books.google.com/?id=GDsNAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA115&lpg=PA115&dq=bucky+lamb+sheep#v=onepage&q=bucky%20lamb%20sheep&f=false, "Fifth Report on the Statistics on the Number of Animals used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes in the Member States of the European Union", http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=no-more-cloning-around, "A second-generation linkage map of the sheep genome", http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1317&context=hruskareports, "Using comparative genomics to reorder the human genome sequence into a virtual sheep genome", "Worm turns sheep clone to "good" fat: China scientists", https://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/24/us-china-genetics-sheep-idUSBRE83N07020120424, "In a Sheep Population, Researchers Find a Fitness Gene", https://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/22/science/22obshee.html?ref=science, https://www.theguardian.com/science/2008/jan/18/genetics, "Darker black sheep's decline is in the genes", https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/3322290/Darker-black-sheeps-decline-is-in-the-genes.html, "The pregnant sheep as a model for human pregnancy", "Animal models for small for gestational age and fetal programming of adult disease", https://books.google.com/?id=9re1vfFh04sC&pg=PA64&lpg=PA64&dq=american+heritage+dictionary+%22black+sheep%22, "Eid ul Adha (10 Dhul-Hijja) – the festival of sacrifice", "Eid Festival Around The World – Graphic photos", http://baghdadbureau.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/08/13/bloody-blessing-goes-unnoticed/?scp=8&sq=sheep&st=cse, https://ultimatepopculture.fandom.com/wiki/Sheep?oldid=108831. , Many breeders take a variety of preventive measures to ward off problems. "Sheep breeding," writers Dr. Vihra Baeva, "has always been the main source of livelihood in the Bulgarian lands. – Source 7. Peirce JW; Leigh AE; daCosta AP; Kendrick KM. Hutson, G. D. 1980.  Fleeces are used as material in making alternative products such as wool insulation. de la Rosa, C. (1997). Also, sheep breeds are often naturally polled (either in both sexes or just in the female), while naturally polled goats are rare (though many are polled artificially).  Sheep milk contains 4.8% lactose, which may affect those who are intolerant. Rams, especially unfamiliar ones, will also fight outside the breeding period to establish dominance; rams can kill one another if allowed to mix freely. External parasites may be controlled through the use of backliners, sprays or immersive sheep dips.  Especially in developing countries, such flocks may be a part of subsistence agriculture rather than a system of trade.  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